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Overweight and obesity is a  critical issue to be addressed. These conditions greatly raise your risk for acute health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes and some cancers. If you are overweight during pregnancy, you and your child may face short-term and long-term health problems. Your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) rises corresponding to the rise in your body mass index(BMI).

CHD is a circumstance in which plaque (plak) a waxy substance accumulates inside the coronary arteries. These arteries transport oxygen-rich blood to your heart. Plaque build up can cause the narrowing or blockage the coronary arteries thus disrupt blood flow to the heart muscle. This can cause a heart attack or angina.

(chest pain or discomfort. ) Obesity also can develop heart failure. This is an acute condition in which your heart fail to pump sufficient blood to meet your body’s needs. A weight loss of 5 to 10 % may reduce your risk of developing heart disease.

If you weigh 200 pounds, this means losing around 10-20 pounds. Weight loss may potentially lower blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood flow. The force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood is your blood pressure. If this pressure increases and stays high over time, it leads to high blood pressure and can cause serious damages to the body.

If you are overweight or obese, your chances of having high blood pressure are very much greater. Weight loss efforts will normalize your BMI range and may greatly lower high blood pressure. Other possible changes are to reduce salt, stop smoking and get involved in regular physical activities. However, if lifestyle changes don’t work, you should consider seeing your doctor to prescribe drugs to lower your blood pressure.

A stroke occurs when blood flow to a certain part of your brain stops abruptly, leading to the death of brain cells. The typical ischemic stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery from carrying blood to the brain. Another stroke, known as hemorrhagic stroke, occurs when an artery in the brain ruptures. Overweight or obesity contribute to a buildup of plaque in your arteries.

Eventually, an area of plaque can burst, causing a blood clot to form. If the clot is close to your brain, it can block the flow of blood and oxygen to your brain and cause a stroke. As BMI rises, the risk of a stroke increases correspondingly. The priority for you to reduce your stroke risk is to keep your blood pressure under control.

Weight loss may help you lower your blood pressure. It may also reduce your cholesterol and blood sugar, ditto stroke. Diabetes is caused by abnormally high levels of blood sugar in the body. Food is turned into glucose by the body and then supplies it to the cells.

The cells then use a hormone called insulin to convert the glucose into energy. Type 2 diabetes develop when the body’s cells fail to use insulin properly. At first, the body reacts by producing more insulin. Over time, however, the body can’t generate enough insulin to regulate its blood sugar level.

Type 2 diabetes is a main cause of chronic heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, blindness and early deaths. Most people who have type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Losing weight may help control or delay the onset of diabetes. If you have type 2 diabetes, exercising and losing weight can help you control your blood sugar levels and reduce health problems and the amount of diabetes medicine you take.

Kidney ailment develops when the kidneys are damaged and fail to filter blood like they should. This damage can lead to a build up of wastes in the body. It can also trigger other problems that can harm your health. Overweight and obesity intensify the risk of diabetes and high blood pressure, the most common causes of chronic kidney disease.

Recent studies show that even obesity itself may promote chronic kidney disease and quicken its progress. In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, losing weight may slow the disease and keep your kidneys health longer. Also eat foods with less salt (sodium), control your blood pressure, and bring your blood glucose to the target range. This is the name for a group of risk factors that raises your risk for heart disease, diabetes and stroke.

You may have any one of these risk factors by itself, but normally they occur together. You develop metabolic syndrome if you have any 3 of the following risk factors: Weight gain in adulthood flares up the risk for several cancers. Fat cells may release hormones that affect normal cell growth, causing cancer. Besides, unhealthy eating or physical activity habits that may lead overweight and obesity may also contribute to cancer risk.

Being overweight or obese increases your risk for kidney, colon and rectum, breast, endometrium (lining of the uterus), and gallbladder cancers. Preventing weight gain may reduce cancer risk and so may healthy eating and physical activity  Weight loss may also lower your cancer risk, although studies prove it inconclusive. Osteoarthritis is a typical joint condition of the knees, hips, and lower back. The condition occurs when the tissue that protects the joints wears away.

Added weight exert pressure and causes wear and tear on joints, resulting in joint pain. Further more,overweight and obese individuals may have higher blood levels of substances that cause inflammation. Inflamed joints may increase the risk for osteoarthritis. For those who are overweight or obese, losing weight may reduce the risk of getting osteoarthritis.

A reduction of at least 5 % of your body weight may ease stress on your knees, hips, and lower back and lessen inflammation in your body. If people who develop osteoarthritis, weight loss may help better your symptoms. Research also shows that exercise is one of the best treatments for osteoarthritis. Exercise can improve mood, decrease pain, and increase flexibility.

Sleep Apnea is a sleep disruption typical to overweight and obese individuals. It can cause you to have one or more short stops in breathing or shallow breaths while you sleep. People who develop sleep apnea may store more fat around the neck. This can potentially compress the airway, causing breathing difficulties.

In addition, fat stored in the neck and throughout the body may produce substances that cause inflammation. Inflammation in the neck is a risk factor for sleep apnea. Weight loss usually improves sleep apnea. Weight loss may help to reduce neck size and lessen inflammation.

Overweight or obese pregnant women  are more liable to develop insulin resistance, high blood sugar, and high blood pressure. Overweight also raises the risks related with anesthesia and surgery, and acute obesity prolongs surgery time and increases blood loss. Weight gain during pregnancy can pose long-term risks for both mother and child. These include the risk for the mother to become overweight or obese after the child is born.

Another risk is that the baby tends to gain too much weight later as a child or as an adult. If you are overweight or obese and would like to have a baby, consult a health care provider about losing weight first. Achieving optimal weight before becoming pregnant may reduce your risks of developing weight-related issues later. Losing excess weight after delivery may help women reduce their health risks, such as gestational diabetes.

It is now known that obesity is associated with a general decline in overall fertility, with a significant relationship existing between excess body fat and problems with reproduction. Research clearly indicates that being overweight contributes to infertility, menstrual disorders, miscarriage, poor pregnancy outcome, impaired fetal well-being and diabetes mellitus (caused by a deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin) . The increase in assisted reproduction highlights the problems of being overweight, and the use of gonadotrophins in ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization is more difficult in women who are over weight. Weight loss has positive effects on improving the menstrual cycle and promoting natural ovulation and fertility.

Studies prove that fertility is improved through exercise and healthy eating habits. This may be associated with changes in sensitivity to insulin. Gallstones are hard pieces of stone-like substance that develop in the gallbladder. They’re mostly formed by cholesterol.

Gallstones can give rise to stomach or back pain. Overweight or obese individuals are at a higher risk of developing gallstones. Also, being overweight may cause a swollen gallbladder that fails to function properly. A recent study found that men who store excess fat around their abdomens are more likely to develop gallstones than those with smaller waistlines.

To curb gallstones due to excess weight, you are advised to stay active. Exercise from 60 to 90 minutes on most days. Healthy dietary habits can also help avoid gallstones. Overweight and obesity also affects children and teens.

Type 2 diabetes which was once uncommon in American children is now affecting an increasing number of children and teenagers. Being overweight or obese exposes a child to a number of diseases and health hazards, including asthma, diabetes, gallstones, heart disease, high blood pressure, liver problems, menstrual problem and trouble sleeping. Overweight children and adolescents are more likely to turn into overweight or obese adults later in life. It is very difficult to break this vicious cycle.

An unhealthy diet and a sedentary lifestyle often contribute to childhood obesity. Although there are medical and treatment options for overweight children, prevention plays a vital role in preventing childhood obesity epidemic.

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